Source: 100 medical network
At present, cold weather is a high incidence season of respiratory infectious diseases such as influenza (hereinafter referred to as “influenza”). However, in daily life, many people are vague about the concepts of common cold and influenza. Delayed treatment often leads to more serious influenza symptoms. So, what’s the difference between flu and cold? What is the need for timely medical treatment? How to effectively prevent influenza?
It is important to distinguish between influenza and cold
There are high fever, chills, fatigue, sore throat, headache and other symptoms. Many people will subconsciously think that they just have a cold and will be fine when they carry it, but they don’t know that the flu may be causing trouble.
Influenza is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by influenza virus. People are generally susceptible to influenza. Children, the elderly, pregnant women and patients with chronic diseases are all high-risk groups of influenza. Influenza patients and invisible infections are the main infectious sources of influenza. Influenza virus is mainly transmitted through droplets such as sneezing and coughing, or directly or indirectly through mucous membranes such as mouth, nose and eyes, or through contact with articles contaminated by the virus. Influenza viruses can be divided into subtypes A, B and C. Every winter and spring is the season of high incidence of influenza, and influenza A and B viruses are the main reasons for seasonal epidemics. In contrast, the pathogens of the common cold are mainly common coronaviruses. And the seasonality is not obvious.
In terms of symptoms, colds are often local catarrhal symptoms, that is, sneezing, stuffy nose, runny nose, no fever or mild to moderate fever. Usually, the course of disease is about a week. Treatment only needs symptomatic treatment, drink more water and rest more. However, influenza is characterized by systemic symptoms, such as high fever, headache, fatigue, muscle soreness and so on. A small number of influenza patients may suffer from influenza pneumonia. Once these symptoms appear, they need to seek medical treatment in time and receive antipyretic and anti influenza drugs. In addition, because the influenza virus is highly infectious, patients should pay attention to self isolation and wear masks when going out to avoid cross infection.
It is worth noting that the annual change of influenza virus is different. According to the test data of relevant laboratories in Beijing and across the country, it can be seen that the recent influenza is mainly influenza B.
Children are at high risk of influenza, and parents need to be vigilant
Clinically, influenza is one of the important reasons for children’s medical treatment. On the one hand, schools, children’s parks and other institutions are densely populated, which is more likely to cause the spread of influenza. On the other hand, children’s immunity is relatively low. They are not only susceptible to influenza, but also at high risk of serious influenza. Children under 5 years old, especially children under 2 years old, are more prone to serious complications, so parents and teachers should pay enough attention and vigilance.
It should be noted that the symptoms of influenza in children are different in daily life. In addition to high fever, cough and runny nose, some children may also have symptoms such as depression, drowsiness, abnormal irritability, vomiting and diarrhea. In addition, childhood influenza tends to progress rapidly. When influenza is serious, complications such as acute laryngitis, pneumonia, bronchitis and acute otitis media may occur. Therefore, parents need to identify the symptoms of children’s influenza as soon as possible and observe the condition at all times. Do not seek medical attention if the child has symptoms such as persistent high fever, poor mental state, dyspnea, frequent vomiting or diarrhea. In addition, whether the child is suffering from a cold or flu, parents should not blindly use antibiotics in treatment, which will not only cure the flu, but also produce drug resistance if used improperly. Instead, they should take antiviral drugs as soon as possible under the guidance of doctors to control it.
After children have flu symptoms, they should be isolated and protected to avoid cross infection in schools or nurseries, ensure full rest, drink plenty of water, reduce fever in time, and choose digestible and nutritious food.
Prevention of “Tao” to protect against influenza
The Spring Festival is coming. On the day of family reunion, don’t let the flu “join the fun”, so it’s most important to do a good job of daily protection. In fact, the protective measures against respiratory infectious diseases such as cold and influenza are basically the same. Currently, under novel coronavirus pneumonia
Keep social distance, avoid gathering, and try not to go to crowded public places, especially places with poor air circulation; Wear masks when going out to reduce contact with articles in public places; Pay attention to hygiene, wash hands frequently, especially after going home, use hand sanitizer or soap, and wash hands with tap water; Pay attention to indoor ventilation and try to avoid cross infection when family members have influenza patients; Increase or decrease clothes in time according to the temperature change; Balanced diet, strengthening exercise, ensuring adequate sleep and enhancing immunity are all effective preventive measures.
In addition, influenza vaccination can effectively prevent influenza. The best time for influenza vaccination is usually September to November. Because winter is the season of high incidence of influenza, vaccination in advance can maximize protection. In addition, because the protective effect of influenza vaccine usually lasts only 6-12 months, influenza vaccine needs to be injected every year.
Zhao Hui Tong, member of the Party committee of Beijing Chaoyang Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University and deputy director of Beijing Institute of respiration
Post time: Jan-13-2022